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Geologija / Geology

ISSN 1392-110X
ISSN 2029-056X (online)

2007 m. Nr. 2

Oldest geological maps of the territory of Lithuania (the period until 1926)

The geological mapping of the present territory of Lithuania has a long history and rich traditions. The first map showed the distribution of occurrence of rock and mineral deposits only, while the modern ones include the stratigraphic concepts and with the help of colours depict the order of sediments according to age. To the present knowledge, the oldest map with geological information on the present Polish and Lithuanian territories was compiled in 1764 by Jean Etienne Guettard (1715–1785). The map is black and white and shows four mineralogical (geological) zones. The next historical fact in geological cartography is the geological map compiled by the Polish philosopher, geologist and geographer Stanisław Staszic (1755–1826) in 1806. This map was very informative at that time. Other maps with geological information on the present territories of Poland and Lithuania were compiled after partition of the country in 1795. One of these maps belongs to I. Domeyko. 1840 is the date of stratigraphic identification of Devonian rocks in the Eastern Baltic region, when L. von Buch in Freiberg analysed fossil fish samples and determined Devonian sandstones, distinguishing them from Estonian limestone. An outstanding contribution to geological cartography was done by Konstantin Grewingk, Antanas Giedraitis, Eduard Toll, Anna Missuna and other famous geologists and geomorphologists.

Keywords: history of cartography, Lithuania, oldest geological maps


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